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Know-how Growth: Its Evolution – eLearning Trade


Studying Tech: Trendy Understanding Of Know-how

To know and make clear the essence of know-how, it’s acceptable to hint the historical past of its formation and the primary phases of its improvement. The issue of the origin of know-how is sort of advanced; there are numerous ideas on this matter.

Origin Of Know-how

One idea sees the origin of know-how as arising from the expedient human exercise and the necessity for a rational use of the technique of this exercise. One other idea of the emergence of know-how was supplied by O. Spengler. Approach, in his opinion, comes from the joint exercise of huge lots of individuals and is a approach of organizing this exercise. Due to this fact, know-how ought to be thought of not as a set of instruments, however as a approach of dealing with them, that’s, virtually as itself a know-how.

An fascinating idea of the origin of know-how was supplied by L. Mumford, who believes that gun and machine know-how are merchandise of biotechnology. By “biotechnology” is supposed every thing an individual wants for all times. Approach comes from the options of human functioning and, in its origin, is intently associated to the origin of man. It was initially life-oriented, and solely then work-oriented. Approach, geared toward manufacturing and energy, arose, in response to L. Mumford, a lot later.

One other authentic idea of know-how was put ahead by the scientist B. Porshnev. He believed that know-how arises on account of the impersonal properties of human adaptation to the world. So, as a substitute of tooth and claws, an individual is compelled to make use of stones and sticks, that are thought of as intermediaries: prototypes of contemporary technical units. It appears that evidently this model deserves particular consideration.

The principle motive for the emergence of know-how lies within the want of man to beat the restrictions of his nature and group, to extend the influence of his pure organs on the substance and forces of nature. In different phrases, the contradiction between the bodily group of man and the necessity to remodel nature with the intention to produce the fabric items required for his existence and improvement has grow to be the primary supply, the motivating power, that decided human exercise to create the primary, primitive, archaic know-how. The entire level of the additional improvement of know-how lies in the truth that people intensify their affect on nature, persistently transferring a variety of labor capabilities to technical units. The next factors are essential for the philosophy of know-how.

Durations Of Technological Growth

1. The Period Of Guide Know-how

On this period, the primary instruments have been of guide labor—instruments that continued and expanded the capabilities of pure human organs and strengthened them bodily whereas labor was of a guide nature. The principle capabilities of manufacturing have been regulated by the topic and their succesful labor power.

2. The Stage Of Mechanization And Machines

On this stage, the primary power of manufacturing is machines, and man turns into the appendage, with many labor capabilities transferred to machines. Labor right here is already mechanized. It’s throughout this era that technogenic civilization and industrial society are fashioned.

3. The Period Of Automation

This started roughly within the second half of the 20th century. Right here, the machines, because it have been, take an individual out of direct manufacturing, and partially or fully exchange an individual with regard to energetic participation in manufacturing. The employee on this case acts as an organizer, controller and “supervisor”, and it’s not the bodily capabilities, however the power of mind, technical talents and information, their cultural and technical contribution, that turns into essential. It’s apparent that the work right here is automated.

It ought to be famous that laptop know-how can be, normally, thought of a sort of machine. Most likely, it’s nonetheless extra appropriate to think about it as a comparatively unbiased sort of know-how, opening the fourth stage in technical progress, involving an entire technical, technological and knowledge revolution.

L. Mumford, already talked about above, believes that the start of the second millennium of our period may be thought of the place to begin of contemporary, and never historical, know-how. Based mostly on the expertise of European historical past, he identifies three doable technological divisions for the period:

  1. The technical period (1000–1750)
    Based mostly on the know-how of “water and wooden.”
  2. The paleo technical period (the second half of the 18th century to the center of the twentieth century)
    Based mostly on the “coal and iron” advanced.
  3. The neotechnical period (now persevering with)
    Makes use of the “electrical energy and alloys” advanced.

As you possibly can see, periodization relies on the primary sort of vitality utilized in know-how and the “substance” that occupies a central place within the creation of technical units.



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